How to explain the Standard Model? Schmelzer Administrator       Posts: 215 Threads: 31 Joined: Dec 2015 Reputation: 0 05-09-2016, 01:28 PM The greatest success of modern fundamental physics in the second half of the last century was the  Standard Model of particle physics  (SM).   It contains 24 Dirac fermions, which come in 12 electroweak doublets, in three generations, with each generation containing one leptonic doublet (a lepton and a corresponding neutrino) and three differently colored quark doublets.     Then it contains gauge fields, vector fields which define a gauge group SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1), which consists of three parts:  The strong force, with eight gluons, and the gauge group SU(3), which acts between colored quarks,  the weak force, with three massive W- and Z-bosons, and the gauge group SU(2), which acts on the left-handed part of the electroweak doublets, and the electromagnetic force, with the photon as the force particle, and the gauge group U(1).   All the fermions and the weak bosons have masses. An additional complication is that the electroweak pairs are not pairs of mass eigenstates.  Then, additional, we have Higgs sector, defined in the minimal, standard variant by a single scalar Higgs particle.   This is, roughly, what is observed.  But is there a way to explain that we observe these fields, and not others?  One way to explain the SM would be to find some hypothetical microscopic structure, which would give, in the large distance limit, all these fields.   One proposal along these lines is the cell lattice model I have proposed.  It explains a lot of properties of the SM, even if not all.  All the fermions and gauge fields have been obtained.  The charges of the fermions for all three gauge fields are obtained too.   What is not identified is the Higgs sector.  The model gives several additional scalar fields, so there is something to start with.  So, for every electroweak doublet there has to exist also a massive scalar field.  Those three for the leptons would not react with anything else, thus, would be nice dark matter candidates.  Then, the gauge degrees of freedom are, in this model, real degrees of freedom.  This gives an additional scalar degree of freedom for all massless gauge fields. There are also two additional U(1) gauge fields, which exist on the microscopic level but will be suppressed at large distances.  One because else the vacuum would have to be charged, the other one would be anomalous, thus, non-renormalizable.     What is also not clear is what defines the masses and the other corresponding parameters.  Here only a few qualitative ideas are known.  In particular, in the lattice model there is an exact lattice gauge symmetry only for a group U(3), which would make this subgroup massless.  And in the SM we have, indeed, the group U(3) as the subgroup which is massless.  Then, there is some weak analogy which makes the neutrinos similar to acoustic phonons, which are massless. This analogy could be used to explain why neutrino masses are that small in comparison with the other fermions.   The main purpose of this forum is to discuss this model.  Of course, other ideas for such "ether models" are welcome too - but, of course, models similar to those developed for the classical ether,  where the only field which has been considered was the electromagnetic field, would be useless.  All the fields of the SM are guided by wave equations with the speed of light as the speed of the wave.  So, if this speed is explained, in an ether theory, as the speed of sound of the ether, all waves of the SM have to be different types of sound waves of the ether.  So, we have to include them all. « Next Oldest | Next Newest »